Солнечные установки

Солнечная тепловая установка (СТУ) — устройство для преобразования солнечной энергии в тепловую, используется для:

  • нагрева воды или другого теплоносителя, а также воздуха;
  • сушки овощей и фруктов;
  • опреснения воды;
  • сушки пиломатериалов;
  • выработки водяного пара;
  • плавки тугоплавких материалов;
  • обжига керамики и других строительных материалов и др.

Низкотемпературные СТУ — используется солнечная радиация естественной плотности (0,8 кВт/м2) и достигаются температуры до +100° С.

Высокотемпературные СТУ — используется повышенная плотность солнечной радиации в 100 -10000 раз больше естественной, получаемая при помощи гелиоконцентраторов — устройств для сбора и фокусировки солнечных лучей. При этом в фокусе гелиоконцентраторов могут быть получены температуры до +3000° С.

Солнечная энергетическая установка (СЭУ) — гелиоустановка для преобразования солнечной энергии в электрическую. Обычно для этого используются солнечныебатареи — это СЭУ для непосредственного преобразования энергии солнечной радиации в электрический ток при помощи полупроводниковых элементов.

Мощность солнечной батареи определяется ее площадью и к. п. д. полупроводниковых преобразователей. Современные полупроводниковые преобразователи имеют к. п. д. около 20%.

В настоящее время при помощи солнечных батарей удается получать мощность до десятков киловат. При этом напряжение электрического тока может быть до нескольких десятков вольт.

СЭУ повышенной мощности (мощностью в сотни кВт) — это обычно паротурбинные электроустановки: при помощи гелиоустановки вырабатывается пар, который вращает турбину-электрогенератор.

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