Проблемы российского рынка черной металлургии

Российская черная металлургия имеет низкую по международным меркам себестоимость продукции: общие затраты на производство и транспортировку готовых изделий в среднем по отрасли ниже среднемирового уровня. Разница обусловлена наличием у отечественных производителей собственных источников сырья и относительно низким уровнем других производственных затрат. На сегодняшний день относительно низкая себестоимость, пожалуй, одно из основных преимуществ российских металлургов.

В числе основных трудностей отрасли — низкая эффективность применения ресурсов. Повысить энергоэффективность и снизить расходные коэффициенты можно, во-первых, благодаря модернизации сталелитейной отрасли: по мере закупок самого современного оборудования отставание будет сокращаться. Во-вторых, критически важно запускать на предприятиях отрасли программы повышения эффективности, где эффективность (а не только объемные показатели) будет краеугольной ценностью по всей вертикали управления.

Необходимо ускорить и упростить процедуры утверждения проектов. Если проекты расширения сталеплавильных или прокатных мощностей вписываются в общую концепцию развития, необходимо существенно ускорять процедуры получения всех необходимых разрешений на строительство. Так, придание проектам статуса «утвержденных» в рамках диалога «государства — отрасли» может стать сигналом для ускоренной выдачи разрешений даже до общей оптимизации системы лицензирования инвестиционных проектов.

Другой сдерживающий фактор эффективного развития отечественной металлургии — производительность труда, которая в среднем по отрасли в России в четыре раза ниже (включая прокат), чем в развитых странах. В то же время, на современных мощностях, введенных в эксплуатацию за последние несколько лет, эта разница значительно меньше.

Повысить производительность труда можно за счет пересмотра рабочего процесса и организации работ, вложения средств в системы, обеспечивающие резкий рост производительности (например, автоматизации). Также целесообразно внедрение систем сравнительного анализа эффективности производства как по показателям российских компаний, так и по мировым сравнительным показателям. При этом необходима оценка и контроль каждого технологического этапа.

При том, что себестоимость российской продукции ниже, чем среднемировой показатель, выручка российских производителей ниже, чем у мировых: выпускаемая на данный момент продукция — в основном с низкой добавленной стоимостью. Дальнейшее сохранение такой продуктовой линейки может привести, в первую очередь, к несоответствию такого рода продукции растущим потребностям российской экономики, где растет спрос на высокотехнологичную сталь. Ввиду растущей стоимости факторов производства на фоне низкой производственной эффективности вполне закономерным будет сокращение прибыльности продаж и соответственно налоговых отчислений в бюджет.

Кроме того, значительное падение цен на продукцию черной металлургии как на внешнем, так и на внутреннем рынках сильнее всего отразилось на производителях, присутствующих в сегментах низко — и среднекачественной продукции. Преимущественно к этой группе относятся и российские компании.

В связи со сложившейся экономической ситуацией произошло снижение потребления металлопродукции во всех крупных регионах-импортерах, в том числе в критически важных для российского экспорта — странах Ближнего Востока и Северной Африки. К тому же с вводом в строй новых мощностей и сокращением внутреннего спроса повысилась доля экспорта со стороны других участников рынка, в первую очередь китайских. Но эти вызовы обусловлены общим состоянием мировой экономики и могут рассматриваться как временные. Важнее другие проблемы — более системного характера.

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