Основные техники резьбы по дереву

Резьба — относительно несложная техника украшения деревянных изделий, которую можно считать естественным продолжением древнейшего способа обработки дерева — придания куску древесины нужной формы путем удаления лишних частей острым инструментом. Тем не менее она позволяет добиться результатов впечатляющего художественного уровня, а резные работы англичанина Гринлинга Гиббонса, итальянца Андреа Брустолона, а также многих других выдающихся резчиков XVIII века, работавших по эскизам художников, показывают, что для овладения этим ремеслом необходимо виртуозное умение, точный глазомер и тонкий вкус художника.

Основными инструментами резчика были стамеска и долото с прямым и фигурным (в том числе скругленным) лезвием. Технический прогресс проявлялся в повышении прочности и остроты режущей части инструментов, но их форма и приемы работы с ними, по существу, практически не менялись на протяжении многих веков.

Для работы заготовка должна быть надежно зафиксирована, и она закреплялась в тисках или струбцинами. Предварительно ей придавалась примерная форма будущего изделия ножовкой, теслом или на токарном станке. Для резьбы годится практически любая древесина, но для тонкой работы наилучшим образом подходит тонковолокнистая древесина. Лучшей считается тонковолокнистая и при этом мягкая древесина липы. Начиная со средних веков и до середины XVII века мебель делали в основном из дуба, твердого и прочного материала, но специфическая структура его волокон не позволяет вырезать мелкие детали.

Красное дерево, которое ввозилось в Европу из Сан-Доминго в Вест-Индии, отличалось исключительной твердостью, и для его обработки требовались инструменты из самой прочной закаленной стали, зато на нем можно было выполнить резьбу с непревзойденной четкостью мелких деталей. Для деталей мебели, которые предполагалось в дальнейшем золотить, чаще всего использовали древесину сосны или бука. При работе со стамеской и долотом важно было соблюдать правильное направление резки — вдоль или поперек волокон, но не против них.

Резьба могла выполняться как непосредственно на детали изделия (как, например, на панели средневекового сундука или на витой ножке), так и на отдельном куске дерева, который потом прикреплялся к изделию в качестве накладки. В большинстве случаев использовались накладки, главной функцией которых было скрыть швы в местах соединения деталей каркаса.

Технику резьбы можно подразделить на три вида: плосковыемчатая, рельефная и скульптурная. Самая простая плосковыемчатая резьба обычно выполнялась не резчиком, а столяром. При рельефной резьбе выбирается фон, благодаря чему рисунок или узор становится объемным. Для придания фону фактурности его иногда обрабатывали разного рода пробойниками, которые создавали неровную поверхность, контрастирующую с гладкой поверхностью объемных резных деталей. Скульптурная резьба являлась, по существу, ваянием. Великолепными образцами такой работы служат секретеры и консольные столики, сделанные мастерами конца XVII и XVIII веков.

В целом стиль резных украшений мебели следовал архитектурным стилям своего времени — остроконечные шпили и ажурные узоры готики в XVI веке сменились колоннами и круглыми арками Ренессанса. В эпоху рококо мастера украшали мебель плавными текучими линиями и асимметричными узорами, что было характерно для архитектуры этого стиля. В неоклассический период резьба по дереву применялась уже реже, хотя резчики и украшали мебель накладками в виде антемия, аканта, розеток и других мотивов, заимствованных из римской и греческой архитектуры. Начиная с 1850 года большая часть резьбы на мебели выполнялась машинным способом.

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