Благодаря возможности выполнять узкий рез, более точную обработку материала, а также универсальность процесса, лазеры можно использовать для выполнения резки высокой сложности, причем с минимальными отходами. Лазерный луч фокусируется на заданном участке материала, расплавляя и испаряя его. В результате края реза получаются без заусенец.
Сам лазерный комплекс представляет собой несколько составляющие: лазер, система оптики, механика, система вентиляции и вытяжки, компрессор (сжатый воздух) и вода для охлаждения.
Система оптики передает лазерный луч через зеркала и оптические линзы, фокусирует лазерный луч на обрабатываемом материале.
Механика включает в себя электродвигатели, редукторы и т. п., которые несут оптическую систему для передачи луча до места фокусировки на материал, и электронику, которая управляет механическим процессом. Система вентиляции и вытяжки обязательна при работе на лазерном комплексе, чтобы исключить запах от частично испаренных при обработке материалов.
Помимо сверхтонкой раскройки материала и гравировки, специальные лазерные комплексы способны «выращивать» объемные модели. Последовательно передвигая фокус по высоте детали можно «наращивать» объемные модели, что представляет альтернативный вариант фрезерному изготовлению трехмерных изделий.
Для раскроя материала на лазерном комплексе надо выполнить несколько операций: загрузить необходимую программу и файлы резки в компьютер, положить заготовку (материал) на стол, выбрать параметры резки (скорость) и нажать на кнопку «Пуск». Знание и опыт работы на фрезе помогают оператору понять и почувствовать разницу резки материалов. Скорость обработки на лазерном комплексе, например, оргстекла толщиной 3 мм-30 мм/секунду.
Лазерный луч, направленный в объектив (линзы), движется в заданном направлении, раскраивая материал. Но существуют некоторые ограничения в использовании лазера, хотя многое зависит от лазерного комплекса. Во-первых, размер координатного стола комплекса ограничивает размер обрабатываемого материала. Во-вторых, лазер определенной мощности обеспечивает резку определенного спектра материалов (лазером низкой мощности нельзя разрезать металл).
В связи с использованием в лазерном комплексе механики актуален вопрос амортизации всего комплекса в полном объеме. Износ механической части лазерного комплекса ниже, чем износ той же самой механической части фрезерного станка. В настоящее время трудно говорить об износе лазерных ресурсов, его механической части и электродвигателей. Техническое оснащение и эксплуатационные расходы зависят от мощности лазера. При высокой лазерной мощности со временем становится необходимым обмен смеси газа (гелия, углекислого газа и азота). Если используется лазер невысокой мощности, то перезакачку смеси производят раз в полгода или год, в зависимости от интенсивности эксплуатации комплекса.
Чем больше мощность лазера, тем толще материал он сможет «прожечь». Но независимо от толщины, также есть ограничения по виду материала. Например, чтобы резать сталь, необходимо работать на лазере мощностью 500 Вт, цветные металлы (алюминий цинк, латунь, медь) от 1, 5 КВт. Скорость резки зависит от мощности лазера и толщины материала. Ширина реза равна долям миллиметра, поэтому можно резать по любому контуру.
При раскройке материала на лазерном комплексе деталь не требует дополнительной обработки края. Рез вспененного ПВХ становится коричневым. Другие виды пластиков и металлы сохраняют цвет необработанной поверхности.
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