Как защитить древесину

Какой материал мы выбираем для постройки дома мечты? Сегодня нам доступны самые разные варианты, но практика показывает, что в зачастую мы предпочитаем дерево.

Древесина – натуральный строительный и поделочный материал с уникальными свойствами. Особое любовное отношение людей к древесине связанно с ее естественными свойствами: она экологична, легко поддается обработке, красива.

«Слабым местом» древесины является ее горючесть. Кроме того, как и любому органическому материалу, ей присуща проблема естественного старения – со временем древесина постепенно разрушается, меняются ее структура и прочность. Скорость этих процессов зависит от интенсивности внешних воздействий – физических (климатических) и биологических. Среди последних основную роль играют дереворазрушающие насекомые и микроорганизмы. Поэтому при строительстве важно учитывать подверженность дерева огню и биодеструкции. На помощь приходят специальные составы для комплексной защиты. Производители предлагают большой выбор систем защиты, устраняющих многие проблемы с огнем, насекомыми и грибковыми заболеваниями.

Современные пропитывающие составы делятся на био — и огнезащитные и бывают вымываемые и невымываемые – за счет образования комплексных соединений с молекулами целлюлозы или образования защитной пленки. Биоциды могут быть с инсектицидным эффектом (от насекомых), антисептические (от грибов) либо комбинированного действия.

Чтобы подобрать оптимальный состав, важно точно знать условия эксплуатации конструкции, породу древесины, вид древесного материала. В случае сомнений можно обратиться за консультацией к специалистам – они помогут разобраться в многообразии средств защиты. Когда новое строительство ведется «с нуля», оптимальным решением может стать отделка древесины защитно-декоративными красками для древесины.

В Центральной России чаще всего вредят дереворазрушающие точильщики. Они живут в наших климатических условиях в открытой природе. Мебельный точильщик к ним не относится – он попал к нам из Западной Европы, теплолюбив и чаще вредит деревянным предметам в отапливаемых помещениях.

«Дикие» точильщики, способные зимовать в природе, живут в лесах и парковых зонах. Часто источником заражения служат обычные дрова или валежник, сложенный в непосредственной близости от дома или где-нибудь в сенях. В семействе точильщиков много разных видов: домовый, северный, грабовый и красноногий точильщики – селятся на наружных стенах постройки. Мебельный точильщик может жить только в отапливаемых постройках – он заражает внутренние поверхности нижней части стен, доски пола.

Деревянную постройку лучше всего защитить еще в процессе строительства такими средствами, как «Сенеж» или «Эрлит» (при выборе состава нужно обращать внимание, для каких работ – внутренних или наружных – он предназначен).

Если на поверхностях в доме появляются отверстия диаметром 1 – 5 мм с осыпями буровой муки – значит, древесина заражена точильщиками. Средства неотложной помощи: жидкие защитные составы, аэрозоли, инсектицидные шашки. В запущенных случаях приходится прибегать к «оперативному вмешательству» – делать вычинки, заменяя сильно источенные бревна новыми. В особенно сложной ситуации поможет консультация специалиста-энтомолога.

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