Энергосберегающие технологии и экономика

Энергосберегающие технологии — это, во-первых, технологии экономии денег; во-вторых, комфортное существование человека в среде обитания, будь это дом, коттедж или село, аул, город, край; в-третьих, безвредные, экологически безопасные условия проживания человека; в-четвертых, сбережение природных энергоресурсов (нефть, газ, каменный уголь, питьевая вода); в-пятых, огромное поле деятельности для изобретателей и рационализаторов, для предпринимателей малого, среднего и крупного бизнеса.

Вопрос об энергосбережении на производстве и в бытовой сфере в настоящее время выступает на одно из первых мест. И это вполне естественно, поскольку при существующих темпах развития промышленности и энергопотребления естественных запасов энергоносителей хватит лишь нескольким следующим поколениям человечества. А в тоже время такие «бесплатные» неограниченные и экологически чистые источники энергии как солнечная, ветровая, потенциальная, геотермальная, биологическая и др. используются недостаточно широко.

Обсуждая проблемы энергосбережения, мы имеем ввиду не только технологии освоения кинетической энергии воздушных масс (ветра); потенциальной энергии рек; тепловой энергии внутренних слоев земной коры (геотермальные источники); излучения Солнца; энергии биологических масс (биогенераторы для получения тепловой энергии и газа), но и технологии, обеспечивающие сохранение (аккумулирование) и учет (измерительные приборы) тепловой энергии, а также строительные материалы и изделия (газобетон, жидкий пенопласт).

1. ВЕТРОВЫЕ ЭЛЕКТРОГЕНЕРАТОРЫ

Ветровые электрогенераторы — устройства для преобразования кинетической энергии воздушного потока в электрический ток.

2. ГИДРОТУРБИНЫ НИЗКОГО ДАВЛЕНИЯ

Гидротурбины низкого давления — устройства для преобразования потенциальной энергии водного потока (естественное перетекание воды с одного уровня на другой) малых рек в электрический ток.

3. ПРИЛИВНЫЕ ЭЛЕКТРОСТАНЦИИ

Луна, обращаясь вокруг Земли, «тянет» за собой приливную волну на суше и на море. На море это приводит в подъему уровня воды — к приливам (и отливам). Энергию приливных волн используют для привода электрогенераторов (приливные электростанции) и выработки электрического тока.

4. ГЕОТЕРМАЛЬНЫЕ УСТАНОВКИ

Геотермальные установки — устройства для использования (преобразования, накопления) как непосредственно тепловой энергии подземных вод (температуры до+100″С и выше), так и их потенциальную энергию (высокое давление, перегретый пар).

5. БИОГЕНЕРАТОРЫ

Биогенераторы — устройства для получения бытового горючего газа путем использования технологий биологической переработки органических с/х отходов, навоза, мусора и пр.

6. ХОЛОДИЛЬНЫЕ УСТАНОВКИ И ТЕПЛОВЫЕ НАСОСЫ

Холодильные установки (парокомпрессионные и абсорбционные) с использованием солнечной энергии применяются для охлаждения воздуха в жилых и производственных помещениях. Если в парокомпрессионной холодильной установке в качестве хладагента используется в основном фреон, то в абсорбционной установке хладагентом служит бинарная смесь хладагента с абсорбентом, который при низких температурах связан с хладагентом химически, а при высоких температурах отделяется от него.

7. ПРИБОРЫ УЧЕТА ТЕПЛА

Без приборного учета выработанной и расходуемой тепловой энергии бессмысленно рассуждать об энергосберегающихтехнологиях. Приборы учета тепла (как газовые, водяные, электрические счетчики) позволяют не только контролировать расход тепла, но и следить за его распределением, предупреждать внезапные утечки, менять график поступления в зависимости от внешних условий.

8. ВЕРМИКУЛЬТИВАЦИОННЫЕ КОМПЛЕКСЫ

Вермикультивационные комплексы — устройства, установки и цеха для получения биологического удобрения — биогумуса на основе использования технологий вермикультивирования, т. е. путем переработки навозов и органических отходов популяциями калифорнийского червя.

Производительность до сотен тонн биогумуса в год. Их также можно отнести к энергосберегающимтехнологиям, поскольку они реально экономят энергозатраты на производство удобрений, обработки почвы для получения экологически чистой с/х продукции, уменьшая производство и применение химических удобрений.

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